"Neighboring rights” are in general understood to mean rights that are specially granted to
protect, mainly, economic interests of particular persons and legal entities, whose activities relate to rendition
of, and/or dissemination of, “works" created by “authors." Under the Copyright Act of Japan, the term “neighboring rights” refers
to rights that are granted to protect economic interests of performers, producers of a phonogram, broadcasters, and cablecasters. One of the purposes of the copyright system of Japan is to ensure protection for their rights.
As in copyrights, the enjoyment of neighboring rights shall not be subject to any formality.
For the Copyright Act of Japan,
a “performer” means an actor, a dancer, a musician, a singer, or any other person who gives a performance and a person who conducts or direct a performance;
a “producer of a phonogram” means a person who made the first fixation of sounds that have been fixed on a phonogram;
a “broadcaster” means a person who does broadcasting in the course of trade; and
a “cablecaster” means a person who does cablecasting in the course of trade.
As for “performers," they are conferred on rights to protect their moral interests called “moral rights of a performer."